At the end of the Cold War, the advent of globalization catapulted domestic crime across national boundaries into the transnational domain. Transnational crime has since mutated into a complex matrix of criminal activities. (1) Narcotics trafficking, money laundering, and illegal migration are integral components of extensive criminal networks that undermine the democratic stability, economic development and social well being of nations. (2) National and international response to non-traditional threats are further complicated by a myriad of security issues territorial disputes, economic decline, and natural and man made disasters that limit available resources.

Today, the narcotics trade is not only a multi-billion dollar industry, but it is also the center of gravity for many of the ills associated with trans-national crime. (3) In the western hemisphere, trade routes for narcotics trafficking vacillate between the transit zones of Central America and the Caribbean. (4) Known as the the third border of the United States, the tiny islands of the Caribbean lie between the world's leading producer, and the world's leading consumer of cocaine and marijuana South America and the United States, respectively. (5) Former U.S. Drug Czar, General Barry McCaffrey, described the ghastly effects of the narcotics trade as a "shared agony throughout this hemisphere." (6)

The geographic outlay of the Caribbean region adds to the complexities of counter-drug measures within the region. These tropical islands are in proximity to major sea lines of communication - the Panama Canal and Caribbean Sea areas. They extend from the Trinidad and Tobago Islands in the south (near the northern Venezuelan coastline) to the Bahama Islands in the north (approximately fifty miles off the U.S. east coast). The proximity of the Caribbean chain of islands to the major sea lines of communication, and its vast coastlines and territorial seas make this region a natural transit route for narcotics trafficking into the United States and Europe.

In recent years, limited resources of Caribbean governments have compelled them to join the United States in a cooperative posture toward combating drug trafficking. (7) Although cooperative security has given way to a host of bilateral and multilateral frameworks, peripheral measures such as joint training and asset acquisition will remain ineffective unless comprehensively reinforced by political will, economic viability, and social stability at the national, multilateral and multinational levels. (8)

These strategic factors political will, economic viability and social stability are major components of national power. Consequently, they must be consistently harnessed and fed into the cooperative equation, if efforts to safeguard the region against narcotics trafficking, and other elements of trans-national crime are to be effective. (9)

Political Will

National sovereignty, regional cooperation, and institutional integrity are vital subsets of political will. Issues regarding them require decisive resolution by government officials and policy makers to strengthen the process of cooperative security between nations.

The political, economic and social crises posed by drug smuggling require both U.S. and Caribbean Methadone Clinic policy makers to develop means of alleviating understandable fears concerning loss of sovereignty. In the past, interdiction efforts made by the U.S. were conducted within Caribbean territories without regard for the sovereignty and independent legal systems of those countries. (10) This unilateral approach generated much skepticism among Caribbean nations. (11) Upon introduction by the U.S., Caribbean nations interpreted the concept of collective security as an American ploy to undermine their sovereignty. (12) The ensuing political fallout created a collaborative stalemate between the U.S. and its Caribbean neighbors.

In addition to this, U.S.-led sanctions against Cuba following the overthrow of its government in 1959 by communist insurgents under Fidel Castro resulted in Cuba's isolation from regional affairs. Hence, a vital piece of the cooperative puzzle was missing from the Caribbean security framework.

Now that the Cold War is over, the United States no longer has a distinct security strategy for the region and sanctions against Cuba remain in effect. (13) The resultant absence of nationally and regionally coordinated strategies between local public agencies as well as national governments have stifled cooperative engagement. A classic example was evidenced in attempts made by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) to better coordinate agency activities within the United States. The ONDCP's endeavours to unite U.S. law enforcement services were resisted by respective agencies resulting in continued deficiencies and ineffectiveness in counter-drug measures. (14) A similar occurrence was noted at the regional level during U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright's visit with Caribbean foreign ministers in 1998. At the meeting, the Secretary of State was greeted at the negotiating table by Caribbean leaders, whose individual agendas were focused on national rather than regional interests. (15) Co nsequently, efforts to cement regional security ties were diluted by independent thinking. (16)

Lack of regional collaboration is not solely responsible for the slow tempo experienced in the process of cooperative security. During the Cold War period, the United States had unilaterally fixed its economic and military sights on countering communist threats within the region. This concentration opened a window of opportunity for Caribbean nations, governments and local elites, to furtively nurture narcotics trafficking. Over the years, national dependence on profits gained from this trade had induced a display of administrative and technical lethargy toward crime prevention by local government agencies. This institutional complacency encouraged the growth of the narcotics business and simultaneously inhibited law enforcement counter measure. The 1997 United Nations Drug Control Program report described the result: "... the anti-narcotic spirit--the political will against drug lords--is undoubtedly strong while the anti-narcotic flesh--the implementation of those policies--remains weak and fragmented." (17 )

Without the indispensable instrument of political will to resolve intrinsic sovereignty issues, develop regional cooperation, and overcome dependencies on artificial economies, perpetrators Addiction Treatment of trans-national crime will continue to thrive.

Economic Viability

Current global conditions demand that economic viability be granted priority status in resolving problems associated with trans-national crime within the broader context of cooperative security. (18) This concept of fostering economic viability abroad was viewed by Captain W. B. Woodson as one of America's promising instruments of national policy. (19) To this end, the implementation of a regional plan that incorporates long term sustainable development is essential for cooperative success throughout the region.

The United States displayed substantial economic interest in the region with the establishment of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) during the latter half of the Cold War. The U.S. import tariffs for Caribbean goods manufactured under this initiative were reduced, and an equal source of revenue was generated for both the Caribbean and the United States. Since 1984, however, the trade gap has widened to $19 billion in favor of the United States. (20)

Today, the U.S. stands as a regional hegemon in the wake of the Cold War. Nevertheless, U.S. aid to the region has fallen from $237 million in 1985 to $23 million in 2000. The recent terrorist crisis in the United States has pressured Caribbean nations to seek international funding to counter future terrorist attacks, compensate for shortfalls from tourism, and implement measures against money laundering while combating the illegal drug trade. (21) Current economic conditions are expected to worsen as the tidal wave of globalization approaches. Caribbean nations dependent upon revenues derived from import duties and economic benefits under CBI are currently seeking alternative economic solutions before the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) takes effect in 2005. (22)

Declining economies have also made it increasingly difficult for Caribbean governments to make meaningful contributions toward cooperative strategy efforts against a growing narcotics industry. (23) Additionally, the political and economic crisis in Haiti currently threatens the stability of the region with vast illegal migration flows. (24) The rise in unemployment throughout the region has also heightened prospects for the propagation of the Colombian effect, the luring of many into seeking employment in the drug trade as an alternative source of income. (25) Even worse, this lack of economic viability may very well trigger a new wave of problems in migration, domestic security and politics. (26) Understandably, the United States goal of achieving cooperative security without a regional economic agenda had left many at the 1997 U.S. and Caribbean Summit disappointed. (27)

Social Stability

Professional integrity remains a cornerstone of social stability. The chief obstacle to this strategic factor, however, is corruption. Although significant contributions have been made by non-governmental and charitable organizations toward the establishment of stable drug-free societies, governments play a fundamental role in maintaining professional integrity among local agencies within the cooperative framework. The existence or perception of corruption is a critical weakness within the cooperative environment and can do much harm in destabilizing developing societies.

The Bahamas, for example, became known as a nation for sale at the peak of the drug trafficking era during the 1980s. (28) Charges of corruption stemming from the narcotics trade had far reaching implications within the political and private sectors of the Bahamian society. A national inquiry was held to investigate the illegal use of the Bahamas as a transit region for illicit drugs into the U.S. Widespread corruption was brought to light during the course of the inquiry. (29) In its wake, government officials were compelled to resign from office, the country's reputation was tarnished, and public trust and support for law enforcement institutions were severely diminished.

Like the Bahamas, other nations within the Caribbean have suffered similar experiences stemming from the scourge of corruption. A case in point was the ousting of the prime minister of St. Kitts and Nevis. (30) Even worse, the former Minister of National Security in Trinidad and Tobago was assassinated for allegedly speaking out against corruption. (31)

A core problem experienced in uprooting corruption is the compulsive drive of many within poorer societies to acquire material wealth through corrupt practices encouraged by the narcotics trade. Left unchecked, the attitude of "administrative and technical lethargy" eventually seeps into the domain of counter-drug operations, where it undermines professional integrity and inhibits law enforcement efforts. (32)

Although governments of Caribbean nations are taking major steps to enforce money laundering laws within private institutions, the legislative basis to bring public officials to justice for corruption remains inadequate. (33) The cries of the RJR Communications Group's chairman, J. Lester Spaulding, for a comprehensive anti-corruption driven within government agencies in Jamaica echo the concerns of citizens throughout the Caribbean. (34)

Corruption is inadvertently encouraged by a lack of technical ability to bring those engaged in this social ill to justice. The presence of corruption, real or imagined, within government institutions, therefore, erodes the integrity of government institutions, deters public assistance in providing vital information and moral support for cooperative initiatives, and threatens the stability of democratic societies.

Operation Bahamas Turks and Caicos (OPBAT)

Operation Bahamas, Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) is a contemporary model of cooperative security within the Caribbean region that demonstrates the positive impact of strategic factors when fused into a cooperative framework. This longstanding multilateral counter-drug operation between the United States, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands (a British Colony) focuses on narcotics interdiction, and is headquartered in the Bahamas. OPBAT was described by former U.S. Ambassador to the Bahamas Arthur Schechter, as one of the finest and largest examples of cooperative efforts overseas by any country in the counter-narcotics area. (35) The constant infusion and interplay of strategic elements of political will, economic viability and social stability by OPBAT policy makers and operational planners into this cooperative process have been instrumental in resolving inherent complexities.

The signing of the U.S.-Bahamas Ship-riders Agreement in 1996, was a fundamental step toward overcoming issues of sovereignty, cooperation and integrity. (36) Enacting this agreement has enabled the U.S., The Bahamas, and The Turks and Caicos Islands to conduct joint interdiction efforts within territorial waters where traffickers often seek refuge. The netting of approximately 100,000 pounds of marijuana, 45,000 pounds of cocaine, and 500 arrests by OPAT counter-drug operations from 1998 to 2002 highlights the importance of the ship-rider

Economically, the U.S. government primarily funds OPBAT operations. The annual cost of running this operation is approximately U.S. $30 million. (38) Although financially constrained, the Bahamas government has committed approximately 14 percent of its annual budget to counter-narcotics efforts. (39) The Bahamas government also continues to make available both personnel and land resources (for use as operational centers), along with coordinated assistance of local maritime assets. Consequently, long term investments made by the U.S. and Bahamas governments in this cooperative venture have sustained OPBAT's operational effectiveness throughout its twenty-year history.

Over the years, local forces and agencies have experienced intermittent incidents of corruption that inevitably create barriers of distrust, and consequently limit prospects for trustworthy cooperation between participating agencies. (40) The Royal Bahamas Police Force's recently established "Policy for the Prevention, Detection and Treatment of Corruption, Dishonesty and Unethical Behavior" within the police force has had favorable results. The continued efforts of this lead agency in local OPBAT operations against corruption within its service will undoubtedly strengthen relationships among OPBAT participants. (41)

As a contemporary model of cooperative success, OPBAT's framework can be used to establish strategic networks of similar operations throughout the wider Caribbean. Operations between the U.S., Haiti and the Dominican Republic or between the U.S., Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are a few examples where the OPBAT model could be utilized. The adoption of this framework, would conveniently subdivide the region into smaller, more manageable areas of operations. Success against narcotics trafficking and other elements of transnational crime could then be maximized through a cohesive unity of effort within each overlapping zone. (42)

In retrospect, OPBAT's effectiveness has been directly proportional to the interplay of strategic elements vitally important to its overall success. Today, OPBAT stands as a beacon of hope where other cooperative entities have been dashed across the rocks of time. (43) This regional model is, therefore, one that should be carefully studied, systematically developed and incrementally exported to enhance overall success of regional endeavors against the narcotics trade.

The Way Ahead

In view of intrinsic difficulties associated with narcotics trafficking and the limitations of regional governments to solve them, cooperative security offers a positive alternative for the way ahead. Enhancing its effectiveness, however, requires the formation of strong relationships between the U.S., Caribbean states, and regional governmental and non-governmental bodies through the infusion of political will, economic viability and social stability. (44)

In addressing components of political will, sovereignty, cooperation, and institutional integrity it is important for regional partners to individually adopt bilateral and multilateral agreements tailored to deal with specific threats to regional security on an incremental basis similar to that of OPBAT. The implementation of these agreements would form the core from which a network of other relationships could evolve to eventually span the region. To include Cuba in this cooperative process would inevitably "improve U.S.-Cuban relations" a desire expressed by former President Jimmy Carter during his recent visit with Cuban President Fidel Castro. (45)

Economically, the development of a cooperative strategy that promotes long-term sustainable development based on economic parity among regional partners is valuable to U.S. national interests. (46) In designing this regional economic strategy, however, consideration must be given to improving service-based economies of Caribbean partners in the areas of tourism and banking. (47) Initiatives by the United States to promote economic viability throughout the Caribbean will create an environment of mutual benefit as well as regional support for America's national interest. (48) Stronger economies will enable Caribbean nations to make greater contributions toward cooperative measures like OPBAT, establish higher standards of living and reduce the temptation to engage in trans-national crime.

Regional partners acknowledged the problem of corruption within the Caribbean at the Caribbean-United States Summit in 1997. A drafting of model legislation for enactment by individual nations was subsequently proposed. (49) This proposal also included the provision of technical assistance and training by the United States for Caribbean law enforcement personnel to combat corruption. The promotion of professional integrity within government agencies along the lines of proposed legislation is vital for eliminating barriers of distrust and securing much needed public support.

The incremental growth of cooperative bonds between nations, the designing of a regional security strategy with economic parity, and the implementation of legal processes to eliminate corruption are important measures that can augment cooperative endeavors against narcotics trafficking.


Narcotics trafficking and other trans-national crimes are in essence a revolutionary war against the traditional freedoms and values of America, the region and the free world. For decades, the narcotics industry has gnawed at the foundations of society and now threatens democracy, law and order, and social well being throughout the U.S. and the Caribbean.

Many within the region now realize that cooperative security is imperative for eradicating narcotics trafficking and its associated ills. However, the infusion of political will, economic viability and social stability is also necessary for the success of this collaborative approach.

The time is now for regional governments and their respective institutions to recommit themselves to fostering cooperation, economic viability and professional integrity. This cooperative venture will undoubtedly enhance the effectiveness of counter-drug measures and promote stability throughout the region.

End Notes

(1.) Resolution 55/56. International Cooperation Against the World Drug Problem. Agenda Item 106. 55th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 4 December 2000., 10 April 2002.

(2.) Resolution 55/25. International Cooperation Against the World Drug Problem. United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. Agenda Item 105. 55th Session. United Nations General Assembly, 15 November 2000, 10 April 2000.

(3.) Coast Guard Striving to Define Normalcy, National Defense, January 2002: 13.

(4.) Bahamas Held Up as A Model to Combat Drug-trafficking By U.S. Diplomat, BBC Monitoring International Reports. 26 November 1998. [18 March 2002]. See also Angus MacSwan. "Cocaine Traffickers Reroute Into U.S. Via Bahamas." Reuters. 12 March 1998. action=doc&p docid+OEEE5FB, 20 March 2002. See United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 2000, (Washington: March 2001),, 12 April 2002.

(5.) Bert Wilkinson, "Caribbean-U.S. Relations Take A Dip", Inter Press. February 22, 2002., 2 March 2002.

(6.) General Barry R. McCaffrey, Remarks to the 21st Regular Session of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission, Office of the National Drug Control Program, (Washington, DC.: 1997), 6.

(7.) Joseph S. Tulchin and Ralph H. Espach, eds., Security in the Caribbean Basin: The Challenge of Regional Cooperation, (Boulder, Colorado: Rienner, Lynne, 2000), 8.

(8.) Several Caribbean nations have entered "ship-rider" agreements with the United States. These agreements allow U.S. law enforcement vessels and aircraft to patrol territorial waters, and airspace of Caribbean nations with Caribbean law enforcement officials onboard. Caribbean Community (CARICOM) members also conduct annual military training and maritime exercises that are sponsored by the U.S. Southern Command.

(9.) Consumer demand lies at the root of success of the drug trade. See "Drug Abuse and Demand Reduction." United Nations Office for Drug Medication Methadone Control and Crime Prevention. demand hiv aids.html, 24 May 2002. Consequently, demand reduction programs such as education and youth development via governmental, non-governmental, and private organizations are essential for overall success against drug trafficking. Consequently, political will, economic viability and social stability provide the necessary framework for the implementation and continuation of these programs.

(10.) West Indian Commission, Time For Action: The Report of the West Indian Commission, (Black Rock, Barbados: 1992), 348-349.

(11.) U.S. Admiral Thayer Mahan's strategic vision for the region had given way to the American concept of unilateral response to regional security within the Caribbean. See Joseph S. Tulchin and Ralph H. Espach, eds., Security in the Caribbean Basin: The Challenge of Regional Cooperation, (Boulder, Colorado: Reinner, Lynne, 2000), 1-2.

(12.) Ibid., 343-345.

(13.) Institute for National Strategic Studies, Strategic Assessment 1999, (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, 1999), 179.

(14.) Ibid., 186.

(15.) The Trinidad Guardian, 30 March 1998, 1.

(16.) Joseph S. Tulchin and Ralph H. Espach, eds., Security in the Caribbean Basin: The Challenge of Regional Cooperation, (Boulder, Colorado: Reinner, Lynne, 2000), 9.

(17.) 1997 United Nations Drug Control Report, No One Is an Island, (Barbados: UNDCP Office, 1997), 2.

(18.) Mark Egan, "Global Finance Leaders Grapple With New World Order," The Nassau Guardian, Business Report, (19 November, 2001), 3.

(19.) Captain W. B. Woodson (after whom the U.S. Naval War College's award -- The Woodson Prize -- is named) noted in his 1958 thesis that "the United States national interest required an expanded program of long term economic assistance to underdeveloped countries as one of the most promising instruments of national policy." Although, life span and modem conveniences have improved over the years, the fundamental principle of Captain Woodson's assumption holds true for the Caribbean region and the wider Americas in modem times. See Commander W.B. Woodson, U.S. Navy, "Some Strategic Implications with Regard to Economic Assistance to Underdeveloped Countries," (Unpublished Research Paper, Record Group 13, U.S. Naval War College, Newport, R.I.: 1958), p. iii.

(20.) Bert Wilkinson. "Caribbean-U.S. Relations Take A Dip." Inter Press Service, 22 February 2002,, 2 March 2002.

(21.) Ibid. Two of the September 11 hijackers had attempted to enter the region via the Bahamas several months before the tragic event. Bahamian immigration officials, however, denied them entry. A third terrorist had entered the Bahamas during what appeared to be a flight training exercise a year before. These events demonstrate the need for cooperative security within the region to guard against potential acts of international crime. See Gustavius Smith, "Terrorists Were In Bahamas," The Nassau Tribune, (15 October 200), pp. 1, 11.

(22.) Caribbean nations have requested financial and technical assistance from the United Kingdom at the Third United Kingdom-Caribbean Ministerial Forum. The assistance is needed to help alleviate burdens felt from increased security costs, declining tourism industry and rising crime. See Lindsay Thompson, "U.K. Shares Caribbean Concerns," The Nassau Guardian, 10 April, 2002, p. 1. In 2005, trade tariffs and CBI benefits will be annulled. See Institute for National Strategic Studies, Strategic Assessment 1999, (Washington. D.C.: National Defense University, 1999), 173.

(23.) Jamaica among other Caribbean states highlights the difficulties experienced with budgetary shortfalls. Although the Jamaican government is committed to combating drugs, it is economically constrained with over half of its national budget going toward debt servicing. See United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 1999, (Washington: Department of State: March 2000). law/l999 narc report/carib99 part3.html, (12 Apri1 2002).

(24.) Gregory J. Sanial, "National Security Depends On Water, United States Naval Institute Proceedings; (November 2001): 76-79. See also: Gustavius Smith, Haiti Caught in Vicious Cycle of Funds Embargo," The Tribune, (8 February, 2002), 3, and Raymond Winder, The Economic Challenges in These Times: Going Beyond Business as Usual, (Bahamas Chamber of Commerce, 31 October 2001), 3.

(25.) Finding employment in the narcotics trade is a natural inclination for unemployed workers in Columbia. See Scott Wilson, "Cocoa Invades Colombia's Coffee Fields: Falling Prices Push Farmers to Plant illegal Crops, Threatening U.S. Drug War," Washington Post Foreign Service, 30 October 2001, sec. A., p. A 17. This tendency or "Colombian effect" has also affected many within the Caribbean region.

(26.) Mimi Whitfield, "OECD Tactics Decried", The Florida Miami Herald, (7 September 2001), 8C.

(27.) At the U.S.-Caribbean Summit held in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1997, U.S. security interests were realized with the establishing of ship-rider agreements among several Caribbean countries. This meeting, however, was viewed by Caribbean partners as long on rhetoric and short on economic commitments. See "U.S.-Caribbean Summit Disappoints", Latin Amen can Monitor: Caribbean, (June 1997): 1.

(28.) Guy Gugliotta and Jeff Leen, Kings of Cocaine, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989), 61.

(29.) Government of the Bahamas. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the file gal Use of the Bahamas for the Transhipment of Dangerous Drugs Destined for the United States, (Nassau: 1984), 41.

(30.) Jorge I. Dominguez, ed. International Security & Democracy: Latin America and the Caribbean in the Post-Cold War Era, (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998), 176.

(31.) New York Times, October 30, 1995, sec. 1:13.

(32.) Joseph S. Tulchin and Ralph H. Espach, eds., Security in the Caribbean Basin. The Challenge of Regional Cooperation, (Boulder, Colorado: Reinner, Lynne, 2000), 144.

(33.) CARICOM. U.S. Caribbean - Summit 1997. Principals of Declaration. 10 May 1997. rupt%20Officias 14 April 2002.

(34.) "Rid JCF of Corruption." Western Bureau, Jamaica Gleaner. 6 November 2000. http:/, 15 March 2002.

(35.) "Bahamas Held Up as A Model to Combat Drug-Trafficking By U.S. Diplomat." BBC Monitoring international Reports, 26 November 1998., 18 March 2002.

(36.) The U.S. and Bahamas governments had informally established the "Joint United States Coast Guard/Royal Bahamas Defense Force Ship-rider and Over-flight Program" for joint operations in 1985. This program was later formalized as the Cooperative Ship-rider and Over-flight Drug Interdiction Program by exchange of diplomatic notes in 1986, and was later extended by a similar exchange in 1996. See Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Joint United States Coast Guard/Royal Bahamas Defence Force Ship-rider and Over-flight Program No. 380, (Nassau, Bahamas: 1996). This program permits Bahamas police and defence force personnel to embark U.S. government vessels operating in Bahamian territorial waters as ship-riders. Additionally, this program authorizes Bahamian ship-riders to board any vessel suspected of drug smuggling in Bahamian territorial waters as well as Bahamian registered vessels on the high seas with the assistance of U.S. law enforcement personnel. U.S. government aircraft are also permitted to over-fly terr itorial airspace. See also: United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, "International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 2000", (Washington: Department of State, March 2001),, 12 April 2002.

(37.) Matthew L. Seebald. "OPBAT Statistics." e-mail address,, 15 March 2002.

(38.) "Bahamas Held Up as A Model to Combat Drug-trafficking By U.S. Diplomat", BBC Monitoring International Reports, 26 November 1998., 18 March 2002.

(39.) United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 1999, (Washington: Department of State, March 2000). law/1999 narc report/carib99.html, 12 April 2002. The reallocation of U.S. counter-drug assets to the American "home-front" to assist in "America's War on Terrorism" is a recent example of the need for Caribbean countries to be economically viable. This would help supplement unexpected shortfalls within a cooperative environment. See "Coast Guard Striving to Define Normalcy", National Defense, January 2002, 13. See also "Drug-Policing Efforts May Suffer", Miami Herald International Edition, 18 October 2001, 3A, and "Laid Up; The Caribbean Economy", The Economist, 10 November, 2000. &Mtd=1&Idx=1, 9 April 2002.

(40.) Secure Communications For the Exchange of Intelligence, Technical Study and Report., (Barbados:European Commission, 1996), pp. 20-21.

(41.) See United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, international Narcotics Control Strategy Report 2000, (Washington: Department of State, March 2001),, 24 January 2002.

(42.) The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) group that attended the United Nations International Drug Control Program's (UNDCP) Regional Meeting on Drug Control in 1996 had proposed that the Caribbean region be divided into three main zones--the Northern, Central and Southern Zones--for the purpose of maritime cooperation. See Joseph S. Tulchin and Ralph H. Espach, eds., Security in the Caribbean Basin: The Challenge of Regional Cooperation, (Boulder, Colorado: Reinner, Lynne, 2000), 180-181. The exporting of the OPBAT model within this collaborative proposal would ensure that these zones are operationally effective. See Joseph S. Tulchin and Ralph H. Espach, eds., Security in the Caribbean Basin: The Challenge of Regional Cooperation, (Boulder, Colorado: Reinner, Lynne, 2000), 180-181.

(43.) Ivelaw Griffith, Caribbean Security in the 21st Century, (Washington, D.C.: Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1996), 4547.

(44.) These regional bodies include the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the Meeting of Heads of National Law Enforcement Agencies (HONLEA), the Organization of American States (OAS), the Regiona Security System (RSS), the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the European Union.

(45.) Jimmy Carter. Former President Carter Cuba Trip Report. The Carter Center. 21 May 2002, http //, 24 May 2002. Republican senators, Lincoln Chafee and Arlen Specter, met with Cuban President Fidel Castro, who assured them of his willingness to cooperate with the U.S. in drug interdiction efforts. See Nancy San Martin, "Two Senators Seek Cuba Links On Drugs, Terror", The Miami Herald, (7th January 2002), International Edition, 12A. It should also be noted that the U.S. government has a permanent drug interdiction specialist in Cuba. This specialist woks jointly with Cuban officials on a case by case basis. See United States, Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 2000, (Washington: Department of State, March 2001),, 12 April 2002.

(46.) The region's economic potential is reflected in job creation, reinvestments and oil production it has generated for the U.S. As a major export market for U.S. trade, the Caribbean region accounts for some 400,000 U.S. jobs. See Bert Wilkinson, "Caribbean-U.S. Relations Take A Dip," Inter Press Service, February 22, 2002,, 2 March 2002. Additionally, the region's reinvestment within the U.S. is approximately 50 cents on every dollar spent by the U.S. See Ivelaw L. Griffith, "U.S. Strategic Interests in Caribbean Security," Joint Forces Quarterly, (Autumn 2000), 64-68. Almost 40 percent of the crude oil consumed by the U.S. originates from the Caribbean basin. See Influences On the Region's Economic Development; Latin America Economic Potential, (Washington, D.C.: Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1999), 172.

(47.) The creation of a joint marketing tourism fund by the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) during the aftermath of the September 11 crisis is an example of how regional partners can work together to achieve a common goal that is beneficial to all. See Caribbean's Tourism Marketing Fund to Spend $16m in 2002, The Nassau Tribune, (19 October 2001) 7B.

(48.) Bert Wilkinson. "Caribbean-U.S. Relations Take A Dip," Inter Press Service, February 22, 2002,, 2 March 2002.

(49.) Declaration of Principles: U.S.-Caribbean Summit 1997, CARICOM. 1997, http:/ 25 March 2002.

About the Author

Lieutenant Commander Tellis A. Behel is a 2002 graduate of the United States Naval Staff College at the United States Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island. He is also a 1981 graduate of Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, Devon, England, and a fellow at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies at the National Defense University, Washington, D.C. He currently heads the Royal Bahamas Defense Force's Maritime Defense Training Institute.
When Robert King Methadone Use was a high school wrestler, he broke his foot and doctors prescribed him Percocet to help ease the pain. But he became addicted to the pain medication, and within a few years he moved on to a cheaper alternative: heroin.

"Once I started taking pills I never really stopped," King told CBS News.

The now 24-year-old is now a recovering addict and struggling to get back on track.


Robert King.

CBS News

King's story is not an uncommon one. As the heroin epidemic continues to rage throughout the country, high school athletes are falling victim to addiction in alarming numbers.

A 2013 study published in the American Drug Journal of Public Health found that adolescent athletes are 50 percent more likely to abuse painkillers.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hasn't tracked addiction among athletes but says the young adult age group has been hit hard. Among 18- to 25-year-olds, heroin use has more than doubled in the last decade.

Jack Riley, Deputy Administrator at the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), emphasized that addiction cuts across every demographic group.

"Heroin never discriminates, and athletes are no different," he said. "This dangerous drug has become a powerful weapon of mass destruction for drug addicts, some of whom are athletes who first became addicted to painkillers while rehabilitating from sports injury."

Jason Ruggeri is another former student athlete recovering from heroin addiction. He started taking painkillers after injuring his knee during college football practice. Ruggeri said his doctor did not warn him how powerful the drugs can be.

That medication led him to heroin, which led to an accidental overdose.

"It also left me completely homeless and on the street," Ruggeri said.

Both he and King have found treatment at St. Christopher's Inn in Garrison, New York, which runs one of the most successful rehab programs in the state.

Director David Gerber said about a quarter of the shelter's residents are athletes.

"These medications mask the pain but do nothing to treat the injury," he said. "So it often worsens the injury, making the need for more medications, and they become addicted."

King's brother was also an addict. Two weeks ago, he died of a heroin overdose.

"He was trying to help me," King said. "And he did. He got me to get into recovery in the first place."

He said his brother's death is now his inspiration to stay clean.

There are many, many different religious teachings and practices worldwide, and religious teachings in rehab. Nearly all of these religions and "methods of rehab" share the same point of view as regards the abuse of drugs and alcohol. Most religions suggest to us that there are forces beyond our understanding, and that these "evil" forces tempt man into using drugs and alcohol. They somehow know that pain and suffering from abuse of drugs and alcohol - or, it is more to "get back at God", thereby paving the way to darkness for man. The solution to drugs and alcohol, according to rehab and religion (and this is not so true nowadays as it was once perhaps), is to closely adhere to the "word of religion", and to rehab, and to direct oneself in accordance with one's faith Methadone Dose in such a way as to subdue and overcome temptation associated with drugs and alcohol, and drive the evil forces that lay behind such attempts back to Hell! (The above example adheres probably more to the Christian religion than anything.)

A handful of religions do make use of drugs and alcohol, and they are used in certain religious ceremonies. This has next to nothing to do with addiction to drugs and alcohol, or rehab! Religious and rehab teachings in general would have us believe that giving into the temptation to use and/or abuse drugs and alcohol is to succumb to the power of evil forces, and that in giving into such temptation to abuse drugs and alcohol is to, at the same time, embark upon an anti-rehab journey into the realms of the wicked; it is to stray from the Word of God, and His teachings.

To me, and to the rehab point of view in general, it is not really important as Opiate Treatment to whether or not "evil forces" are Opiate the ones' responsible for any persons' headlong fall into the dark world of drugs and alcohol! Regardless of "who", or "what", is responsible for why a person begins to abuse drugs and alcohol to the detriment of their "normal" way of doing things, addiction to drugs and alcohol in itself is a predicament; a phenomenon whose nature and cycle, and the effects of that cycle, are relatively simple to understand separate from religious teachings, and rehab.

It is beyond the scope of this article to debate the various religious and/or rehab beliefs and practices worldwide as regards drugs and alcohol; it is also beyond the scope of this article to explain various and proposed religious and rehab ties to the occult interpretation of many religious practices, and practice in the occult arts itself, where drugs and alcohol are concerned. MYSTICISM, MAGICK, and OCCULT PRACTICES IN GENERAL ARE ENTIRELY ABOUT THE APPLICATION OF SELF OBSERVANCE, AND REQUIRE AN EXTREME APPLICATION OF SELF-DISCIPLINE. THESE PRACTICES, UNLIKE REHAB, ARE DESIGNED TO BRING ABOUT A GREATER LEVEL OF SELF AWARENESS IN THE INTEREST OF ATTAINING KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRUE SELF TO THE END OF ATTAINING PEACE WITH THAT SELF, AND WITH GOD.

Unlike rehab, early on in the study of the occult sciences, a student is required to observe certain practices designed to help him or her gain a greater level of self awareness. Use of drugs and alcohol is not forbidden. Many of these exercises develop both the physical body as well as the mind. In the case of "obsession" with drugs and alcohol, which is one way that addiction is defined in terms of occult terminology, the student is required to observe how any form of obsession, even obsession with drugs and alcohol, weighs upon the rest of the life, and how it upsets both the life and the Will. This is both similar and different from the views of rehab.


How do you know if you are addicted to drugs and/or alcohol, and if you need rehab? How do you know if you are an addict, and/or addicted to other things as well, and need rehab? Quite simply: you will find that you cannot effectively manage your life while using (or Prescription more correctly, abusing) drugs and alcohol. Whether it is drugs and alcohol, or a behavior, or even an obsessive thought, and/or behavioral pattern; if it upsets your other daily activities this often suggests addiction, and rehab or spiritual practices are a suggested course of action. Keep in mind, also, that even though you may be able to manage your use of drugs and alcohol well enough while living within the confines of an addictive cycle, you can still be "addicted" to drugs and alcohol, and could benefit from rehab or occult studies and practices.

For rehab, and for drugs and alcohol, might I first suggest attending either an Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous meeting in your area? Maybe even rehab? (Nowadays, there are also Twelve Step Meetings for other addictions as well aside from drugs and alcohol.) Should you ultimately find that rehab and/or these solutions do not work for you, there are other views and methodologies on drug and alcohol addiction that you might also want to investigate.

For rehab, Twelve Step Programs essentially require that you, in some way, arrive at an honest assessment of your life's predicament with drugs and alcohol, and seek help by giving up your own methods and approaches to treating your drug and alcohol addiction, mentally and physically. Alternatively, you might want to enlist yourself into the sororities and fraternities of the Hermetic Society of the Golden Dawn, or even read all of Aleister Crowley's works, and undertake a "magickal retirement" to "rehab" yourself and arrest your problems with drugs and alcohol.

Adopting a motto, a magickal name, and endeavoring to discover your True Self are requirements that are set early on in your occult training. As in rehab sometimes, you are also required to keep a daily journal, later a dream diary; and you are required to adhere to certain daily practices more out of self-discipline than anything. Observing yourself, as regards use of drugs and alcohol, writing of your feelings, your goals, and your struggles, and your rehab, are all helpful. Learning to meditate, to breathe correctly, to pray, to ask questions; to practice Yoga, to gain self-control, and to eventually master elements of your own physical body and mind, and your obsession with drugs and alcohol, are further requirements for success in these Paths. Addiction to drugs and alcohol is assessed and conquered often in the early stages of development, and both rehab and therapy of some form is often suggested.

Again, it is beyond the scope of this article to "put you onto the path of recovery and rehab" from drugs and alcohol, so to speak. Please visit our FREE Section to download E-Books, Audio Books, Films, Documentaries, and much more on drugs and alcohol, rehab, Twelve Step Recovery Programs, and Occult selections written by many, many great authors and authoresses from ancient times up to the present.
(Reuters Health) - Commonly used drugs for problems like colds, allergies, depression, high blood pressure and heart disease have long been linked to cognitive impairment and dementia. Now researchers have some fresh evidence that may help explain the connection.

The drugs, known as anticholinergics, stop a chemical called acetylcholine from working properly in the nervous system. By doing so, they can relieve unpleasant gastrointestinal, respiratory or urinary symptoms, for example.

The Helps Opiate list of such drugs is long. Among them: Benadryl for allergies, the antidepressant Paxil and the antipsychotic Zyprexa, Dimetapp for colds and the sleep aid Unisom.

In the new analysis, researchers looked at brain scans and cognitive test results from 451 older adults - including 60 who had been taking anticholinergic drugs for at least a month. The study participants were about 73 years old on average.

None of them had been diagnosed with cognitive problems like Alzheimer's disease or dementia.

But brain scans of people who used anticholinergic drugs showed lower levels of glucose processing in the brain - an indicator of brain activity - in a region of the brain associated with memory that's also affected early in the course of Alzheimer's disease.

In addition, patients who used these medications had reduced brain volume and thickness in some regions linked to cognitive function, the researchers report in JAMA Neurology.

People who used these drugs also scored lower on tests of immediate memory recall and executive function compared to people who weren't using these drugs, researchers found.

"There are definitely medical benefits to all of the anticholinergic medications we looked at, which could outweigh the cognitive risks," said lead study author Shannon Risacher of the Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis.

"But if alternative therapies are available that provide effective treatment of these conditions, patients and doctors might want to consider avoiding anticholinergic medications," Risacher added by email.

The study can't prove the anticholinergics were the cause of participants' brain and memory differences.

The authors also acknowledge limitations of their study. In addition to the small. number of participants taking anticholinergic drugs, another Methadone Alternative problem is that the study Effects Of Methadone relied on participants to accurately recall and report on drug use, which wasn't verified by medical records or prescription data.

This study and others like it are limited as well by a lack of specifics about what dosage of anticholinergic drugs people took or how long they used the medications, noted Alain Koyama, an outcomes researcher at Health Advocate, a consultancy in Los Angeles.

"Therefore, it is yet unclear if lower doses or shorter durations of use can in fact mitigate risk of cognitive harm," Koyama, who wasn't involved in the study, said by email.

Still, the study adds to a growing body of evidence connecting anticholinergic medicines to cognitive problems later in life and offers new evidence to explain why this link exists, Koyama added.

The findings should encourage doctors and patients to discuss the drugs, and to consider whether the potential risk of cognitive decline merits avoiding or limiting use of these medicines.

Not every patient will arrive at the same answer, however.

"Since the pathology underlying any effect of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive function likely takes years to manifest, if a patient is clearly benefiting from a drug in the short-term, but may not survive in the long term, any cognitive harm from the drug may be inconsequential," Koyama said.

"On the other hand, a healthier patient particularly concerned about future dementia risk, whether because of family history or other reason, may consider alternative treatments," Koyama added.

SOURCE: JAMA Neurology, online April 18, 2016.

There are different cosmetic surgery procedures offered by advanced plastic surgery clinics to enhance your beauty. Modern laser-aided cosmetic surgery is safer and more effective. The most popular among these procedures is liposuction or lipoplasty that successfully removes excess fat deposits on the body that have proven resistant to diet and exercise.

Liposuction for Various Parts of the Body

Liposuction treatment is available for both men and women and almost all parts of the body can be treated including:





Upper arms






Candidates for liposuction are individuals who are healthy with body weight within the allowed limit and with localized areas of superfluous fat. Liposuction is a safe procedure and the ultimate results depend on certain factors such as your age, skin elasticity, weight and overall health. This procedure can also address sagging skin.

The new and advanced laser liposuction using SmartLipo can be done under local anesthesia and is safe, comfortable with minimal recovery time. It is usually done as an outpatient procedure.

Buttock Enhancement with Brazilian Butt Augmentation

Brazilian butt augmentation ensures a more rounded and firmer derriere for women who desire a more attractive body contour. This procedure can be done to add volume to flat buttocks, or compensate for the volume loss following pregnancy or weight loss. It involves fat transfer wherein excess fat from your body areas such as hips, flanks and back is taken, purified and injected into the buttocks. Depending on the degree of augmentation required, the fat cells are injected at different depths in different areas of the buttocks. Chances of rejection are minimal since your own body fat is used.

Benefits include:

No artificial implants

Great results

Speedy recovery

Minimal scarring and discomfort

Mammoplasty Plastic Surgery for the Perfect Breasts

Modern plastic surgery procedures such as breast augmentation can add volume to breasts.

Mammoplasty or breast augmentation through surgical implants is the common cosmetic surgery procedure to enhance the breasts. These FDA-approved implants are either saline-filled implants or silicone implants.

Reduction Mammoplasty

Large breasts in men affect their self-confidence. This phenomenon, called gynecomastia, can be rectified with the reduction mammoplasty plastic surgery procedure. Not only does the procedure reduce the breast mass, but it also provides a well-sculpted chest for a manly appearance.


The face is undoubtedly the most visible indicator of youthfulness and health. Not surprisingly, cosmetic surgery for the face such as the facelift as well as procedures concentrated on certain organs of the face such as the nose, lips, eyes, eyebrows, forehead and cheeks are extremely common. Facelift surgery can significantly reduce signs of aging visible on the face and the neck. Facelift cosmetic surgery eliminates the creases below the lower eyelids, brings about reduction in lines and wrinkles, stiffens underlying muscles, reduces looseness and saggy skin, removes unnecessary fat and enhances the jaw and facial area overall.

Experienced Plastic Surgeons Offer Customized Treatment

These are only few of the different cosmetic surgery procedures provided to men and women to restore self-confidence and a sense of well being in them. Get in touch with an experienced plastic surgeon and discuss your requirements and expectations. Youll get a plan tailor-made to your requirements and physical condition. The plastic surgeon wont fuel false expectations and will only go ahead with the procedure if youre willing, or your physical condition permits. The different cosmetic surgery procedures to enhance your beauty will make you a more confident individual.

penile implants before after

Women, young or old, have at some point in their lives, experienced some kind of breast problems ever since they hit puberty. One of the most commonly experienced conditions in women is having tender breasts after periods. Why do the breasts become so soft? Why do they feel like they have suddenly become enlarged? Why do they not fit into the brassiere that they wear on other days? The answers to all these questions lie in the sections below. They will tell you what are the telltale signs of the tenderness, what the possible causes for them are, and also how you can treat this condition.


Here, we will tell you about what are the probable causes that could have led to this condition. Remember, these are generic causes. The cause of the tenderness may not be the same for all women. Depending on the woman's constitution, her menstrual cycle and also her lifestyle, the causes may vary.

After Ovulation: Every woman goes through a menstrual cycle every month. In this cycle, the ovulation time is between the 10th to 15th day, and it varies from woman to woman depending on the monthly cycle. During this time, the ovum in the woman's body is totally ready to be fertilized. This results in the body preparing itself for a possible pregnancy. During this time, the body begins to store up excess water in it, facilitated by the hormone progesterone. This water gets collected in many parts of the body, including the bust. In order to accommodate this excess water, the tissues of this area stretch themselves. This is also the reason why women feel bloated, and the size of their bust increases a little. This stretching of the tissue is what causes the pain and tenderness that you may be experiencing.

Pregnancy: The other reason could be that you are pregnant. During the menstrual cycle, the level of estrogen and progesterone (two hormones in a woman's body) goes up. After your menses, if you indulge in sexual intercourse, and if the ovum that is released during ovulation gets fertilized, then the level of estrogen and progesterone continue to increase in order to help the body nourish the pregnancy. That is why, your bust may become soft, and you may also experience pain at some point.

If you think you are pregnant, then get yourself tested to be sure. If you are not pregnant, your bust feels tender and your nipples begin to feel sore, and you have missed your period, then it is advisable to consult a doctor for expert advice.


In this section, we have enlisted the most commonly experienced symptoms that you may also have, apart from this condition.

Softness in the bust area after the ovulation cycle is complete. Pain in one or both the boobs. Painful lumps in one or both breasts. A slight increase in the size. The breasts become oversensitive to touch. The nipples become sore and hurt when touched. Tingling or burning sensation, specially in the nipples area. Possible Treatment

Now that you know the probable causes, and also what are the other allied symptoms, let us take a look at some of the simple things that you can do to relieve the soreness or at least reduce the discomfort a little.

Relax your Body

It is very normal to feel low on energy and devoid of any strength when you are in such pain and discomfort. However, just sitting will only alleviate the pain. So, if you want to get rid of the pain, or at least reduce it considerably, then get off the couch and go for a long walk. Keep it slow and long. Don't tire yourself out as that will only worsen the pain. Meditation helps too.

Wear the Right Brassiere

Many women, even in their late 30s, tend to wear brassieres that do not fit right. They're either too tight or too loose. What they need to realize is that, the boobs are inherently tender organs that require adequate and appropriate support. This support can be rendered only with a bra that fits perfectly. So, get yourself measured and then pick out a bra that fits properly. At night, wear a loose bra and go to sleep. Your breasts will get the support they need and will feel much better.

Eat Right

In addition to the above-mentioned steps, it is also necessary that your diet is well maintained. Some foods, especially the ones with a high fat level, tend to over-sensitize the hormones. So, it would be best to avoid them as much as you can. Also, avoid a regular intake of caffeine. Reduce the intake of caffeine drinks like coffee, chocolate drinks, or colas, and you'll be able to deal with the condition better. Have a heavy intake of carbohydrates and proteins to help your body cope with the condition.

Being a woman involves a lot of physical and psychological hardships. Tenderness in breasts is a very normal phenomenon and nothing to be overly worried about. Just take the necessary steps to avoid further alleviation of the state and you will see the difference it makes. If your symptoms persist for long, then do consult a doctor for professional help.

Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and should not be used as a replacement for expert medical advice.


Wouldn't it be nice to never concern yourself with money? Unfortunately, money is a pressing concern for only about everyone. That's why it's vital that you learn how to make smart decisions about your finances. This post is designed to help you discover more about making use of your money in one of the most positive of ways.

When using an ATM while on a trip, be sure the bank is open. ATMs offer an annoying tendency to eat cards. When your card is eaten in a bank which is countless miles from your own home, this can be a major inconvenience. In case the bank is open, you may more likely have the capacity to retrieve your card.

As soon as your boiler or furnace breaks, check out the average life expectancy of the items prior deciding to get it fixed. When it is next to the end of their life, you will save more money just replacing it as opposed to repairing it simply because it more then likely will just break down again sometime shortly after. Plus a replacement work more effectively.

Put money into the things you love. Stock market trading and companies can be very confusing, and will seem like an unpredictable roller coaster. Plan on investing over the longer term, not attempting to make a simple fortune. Pick a company or companies who have been around for many years, and who's product you personally enjoy and make use of. This will give you some piece of mind inside their security, as well as an interest in following them.

Among the best ways for the greatest bang for your buck is to reuse items that are not perishable. When you bring your lunch to work, take advantage of the same container time and time again. This can reduce the amount of brown bags that you must buy, while still keeping the food secured and fresh.

Not only can you insure your very own medical costs, but dog owners may wish to investigate pet insurance. These policies can pay for or start working to purchase vet services when you reach a deductible amount. Veterinary costs can be expensive, so that it seem sensible to insure you pet, exactly the same way you might a member of the family.

If someone wants to make best use of their particular personal finances they need to be thrifty because of their money. By looking to find the best deals, or even a way for someone to save or generate profits, a person can always be making the most of their finances. Being mindful of one's spending could keep them in control of their finances.

Shop thrift stores to accumulate an experienced wardrobe. Business clothing can be expensive. It is actually something people need, however, whenever we are going to convey the correct image at your workplace. Thrift stores provide an affordable option for each of our wardrobe needs. You don't must tell anyone where you bought it or how much you paid!

Recycle and reuse to save a lot of money. Why constantly increase the environmental problems related to manufacturing and landfills? Something that could quite possibly be reused ought to be reused. It's not shameful to achieve this. It really is practical and admirable not simply from an environmental standpoint and also from the personal finance standpoint.

After you finish dinner with the family, usually do not discard the leftovers. Instead, wrap these up and use this food included in dinner the following day or like a snack throughout the night. Conserving every part of food is essential in cutting your grocery costs each month.

Stay with a budget! Take time to write down the things you make and what your monthly expenditures are. This can help you decide where you should put extra income and in case you have anything leftover to invest to produce yourself more money! No matter what form of money you will be making you want a budget!

Now, don't you feel better reading all of the tips? That had been a lot of information to imagine and study through, but a minimum of now you know what to complete and how to start along with your personal finances. Also, you could always refer back to these listing of tips should you forget.

Many people think that handling their finances and investing their cash is hard unless there is a financial adviser to help them. This is simply the case if you aren't able to get the adequate information on your own. The greater number of you know about personal finance, the better. Read on to learn how to increase your current finances.

If you are saving on an emergency fund, aim for around three to six months worth of cost of living. This may not be a large amount, with the difficulty in locating employment should you ever lose your job. In reality, the greater the emergency fund, the more effective position you will be straight into ride out any unforeseen financial catastrophes.

An investing system with good possibility of successful trades, does not guarantee profit if the system lacks a thorough procedure for cutting losing trades or closing profitable trades, in the right places. If, for instance, 4 away from 5 trades sees a nice gain of 10 dollars, it will take only one losing trade of 50 dollars to lose money. The inverse is also true, if 1 out of 5 trades is profitable at 50 dollars, you may still think about this system successful, if your 4 losing trades are just 10 dollars each.

If you are saving on an emergency fund, aim for a minimum of 3 to 6 months worth of cost of living. This is simply not a huge amount, with the difficulty in finding employment if you happen to lose your work. In reality, the larger the emergency fund, the better position you will be straight into ride out any unforeseen financial catastrophes.

Make big purchases an objective. As opposed to putting a large item purchase on a credit card and paying for it later, make it a goal in the future. Start putting aside money per week until you have saved enough to buy it outright. You will appreciate the purchase more, rather than be drowning in debt because of it.

Maintain your home's appraisal in mind once your first property tax bill comes out. See it closely. In case your tax bill is assessing your own home to get significantly more then what your house appraised for, you must be able to appeal your bill. This could help you save a large amount of money.

Build a budget - and stick to it. Create a note of your respective spending habits over the course of a month. Track where every penny goes so that you can find out where you need to cut back. Once your prices are looking for the month, if you realise you spend lower than planned, take advantage of the extra cash to pay down the debt.

If you keep your change from cash purchases, it could accrue after a while to your nice chunk of money, that can be used to supplement your own finances anyway you desire. You can use it for something that you have been wanting but couldn't afford, such as a new guitar or if you wish to make it work for you personally, it could be invested.

Saving even your spare change will add up. Take all of the change you possess and deposit it straight into a bank account. You will earn small interest, as well as over time you will recognize that start to formulate. In case you have kids, place it right into a savings account for these people, and by the time they can be 18, they will possess a nice amount of money.

Shopping around when making a major purchase is the best way to guarantee you are having the most for your investment. It will always be smart to look at several retailers and brands when it comes to any purchase. You may even want to wait with a big sale to produce a purchase to save yourself sometimes several hundred dollars!

Use cash for purchases. Eliminate credit cards and debit cards and use cash for purchases. Make use of the envelope system to allocate an affordable budget for monthly expenses. Have a separate envelope for each and every different sort of expense, and place a specific quantity of cash in each. This way, you won't over-pay for any monthly expenses. A good idea is usually to have another envelope marked 'emergency', containing cash that may simply be used if really necessary. Seal this envelope, as as a result you less lured to 'borrow' as a result.

Now you have spent a while understanding personal finance, you are ready for taking matters to your own hands. Keep this post, and should you ever seem like you will be not sure if you are doing the proper thing, you may refer to it as much that you need.

Managing your personal finances is very important for just about any adult, particularly those which are not employed to purchasing necessities, like, rent or energy bills. Learn to generate a budget! See the tips in this post so you can make the most of your wages, despite your actual age or income bracket.

Make the home more eco-friendly by switching every one of the light bulbs within your house to compact fluorescent lights. They could save you money on your monthly power or energy bill as well as last much longer than traditional bulbs, meaning you won't have to spend the maximum amount of money, or time replacing them.

Don't throw out all your old tissue boxes - turn them into something useful again. By way of example, you can preserve your old tissue boxes and keep your grocery bags inside. The box makes a useful dispenser, while keeping your grocery bag clutter under control. Place your grocery bag filled tissue box within the kitchen sink for convenience.

To generate money for one's personal finances establishing a pet dog walking service can produce lucrative returns if it becomes sufficiently established. By starting with a reduced selection of select customers at the reduced price you can gain clients through recommendations and advertisement if someone would like to attract even more clients. The important thing to personal finance would be to take initiative regardless of path one may choose.

Keep good records of your respective expenses. If you aren't keeping accurate records, it's doubtful you are claiming the only thing you are allowed at tax time. Additionally, it makes your needs extremely tough if an audit should happen. A digital or paper file will work all right, so focus on creating the device which fits your life-style.

To further improve your own personal finance habits, make sure you keep a buffer or surplus sum of money for emergencies. When your personal budget is completely taken with no room for error, an unexpected car problem or broken window might be devastating. Make sure to allocate a few bucks each month for unpredicted expenses.

Firms that explain to you to create a new credit file are scamming you. Developing a new credit file is illegal, considered to be credit fraud and you will take place accountable for doing something illegal. To get around the safe side, determine what you're entering into and make certain to double check exactly what the business you're utilizing says.

When you have not started putting away money for retirement, regardless of how old you might be, now is the time to start out. For those who have already commenced, try boosting up your contributions. Annually people see they are having to support themselves more in retirement as social security falls, and could 1 day disappear.

When you are taking out money, one thing you need to avoid is withdrawing from the different bank than your very own. Each withdrawal will set you back between 2 to 4 dollars and might mount up with time. Adhere to the bank of your liking if you want to minimize your miscellaneous expenses.

When you are used to paying your bills by mail, it is actually optimal to change to online bill pay. Every bill that you just send out by mail can cost you 40-50 cents with postage. Pay online so there is no need to concern yourself with this fee inside your daily and weekly expenses.

Write your expenses down by category. As an example, putting all bills in a single category and unpaid bills in another. This will help you get organized and prioritize your bills. This may also be useful when you are finding what spending you must scale back on to economize.

How will you enhance your finances? Using a savings account is very important. The best way to do this is to pay out first - before some other bill pays. Understandably, there are times in life when it's difficult to save however, just putting $25 a paycheck aside for savings will prove to add-up over time.

Do not, whenever possible, spend more money money than you will be making. Obviously, situations arise, and sometimes it is alright to borrow money. However, it is important to live below your means. Sacrifice a little now, and later on you can expect to reap greater benefits than you can imagine.

Solid grounding when it comes to personal finance is usually the keystone of any happy life. The easiest method to prepare is usually to make your right forms of decisions when it comes to money is to make a real study in the topic within a comprehensive manner. Read and revisit the concepts in the preceding article and you will probably have the foundation you need to meet your financial goals.

Lots of people you can see today who definitely are great at public speaking didn't get started this way. Actually, most will explain they were very scared at the beginning. It is likely you are scared too, and that is why you are interested in methods to improve your public speaking skills. Continue below to acquire solid tips about public speaking that happen to be extremely helpful.

Feeling nervous before presenting and public speaking is quite common. To help you overcome the concern with speaking before others practice the speech you will be giving many times facing your family. This will allow you to work out any kinks within your speech. Additionally, this gives you the chance to speak in front of others.

If you need to speak publicly, try to keep it at 20 mins or less. This is basically the average attention span of most individuals, so speaking for more than this will risk boring them. If you have to speak for longer than this, find some strategy to change gears in between to liven things up.

In case you are prepping, practice a whole lot and memorize what you must ahead of speech day. This will help you with the overall delivery. Once you have the speech memorized, you can ad lib once you are about the stage.

When you provide a speech to your crowd it is crucial that they could see your face. Maintain your concentrate on what you are actually doing and not allow yourself to get distracted. It is essential to observe the audience when you expect their attention in exchange.

A lot of people prepare their notes for speaking in public simply by using a tablet or another device however, this may not be necessarily a good idea. Murphy's law is certain to strike and give you a dead battery, a stolen device or some other catastrophe. Be safe and write your remarks on index cards in addition to keeping them on your mobile phone.

When creating a public speech, become knowledgeable about the space. Try to tell how sound travels without having a microphone. Utilize the equipment readily available, if needed. Try learning to use visual aids, if they're available. Get a sense of simply how much range of eye contact you have to make.

It is perfectly normal to feel nervous when giving a public speech. However, irrespective of how nervous you are feeling, you can not let others notice. If you find yourself nervous, try and imagine yourself giving the speech to a friend or acquaintance. It would calm you down and enable you to successfully give your speech.

If you are planning to provide multiple speeches within a short time period, make sure to protect your vocal cords. A hoarse or inaudible voice is just not likely to sway audience members' opinions. Sleep having a humidifier inside your room, sip hot tea, and drink plenty of water during the day.

Arrive 30 minutes early to your speaking engagement to enable you to familiarize yourself with your room. Determine where you will end up through the presentation. Evaluate which path you can expect to take to reach the podium. Be sure to have got a glass water put on the podium. By caring for these small details, you are going to feel more at ease while speaking.

If necessary, use note cards. While you ought to have your speech memorized, you must carry a collection of note cards along with you for the podium. You may possibly not necessarily have the whole thing written out, but obtaining your important points notated can help.

When you know ahead of time that you will be speaking in public, dress appropriately. You are able to dress down in case you are speaking with a team of children at a summer camp, but dress more formally in case you are making remarks with a business luncheon. Avoid flashy colors and distracting accessories. You desire the target audience to concentrate on your message rather than for your clothing or jewelry.

From above, you will notice there are many methods to help conquer or overcome your the fear of public speaking. Learn what you fear probably the most about public speaking along with the take advantage of the techniques that address those issues. Then put them into practice in many situations and will soon have the capacity to give a public speech as ease.

Or visit this link or this one